Muzaffarpur district of Bihar is spread over an area of 3172 sq. kms. The district is bounded on the north by East Champaran and Sitamarhi districts, on the south by the district of Vaishali, on the east by the districts of Darbhanga and Samastipur (part) and on the west by Saran and part of Gopalganj districts. The district headquarters is located at Muzaffarpur.
The district has a population of 3.743 million (2001 census). Overall, there were 906 females per 1000 males. Rural population in the district is 90.7% and urban population is 9.3%. The Scheduled caste and scheduled Tribe contributed about 15.7% and 0.04% of the population respectively. The decennial growth rate between 1981 and 1991 was 23.3%. The density of the population was 929 per sq. kms. Hindi is the main language spoken in the district.
Muzaffarpur district consists of 2 sub-divisions and 14 Community Development Blocks. It has 3 towns and 1796 villages.
The Muzaffarpur district comprises of an extensive plain formed by the alluvium brought by the Gandak, the Bagmati and other rivers, which flow through it. The ground is not marked by any high contour and at many places there are chains of shallow marshes, which serve the purpose of drainage for excessive water due to rainfall and overflow of the stream. The alluvial plain is a tract of great fertility. The soil of the district is largely alluvial. A special feature of the district is that due to continuous deposit of silt many of its riverbeds are higher than the adjoining areas. This leads to frequent floods during the rainy season particularly in northeast and southwest parts of the district.
Area (Sq. Km.) 3172
Population (1991 census) 3.743 million
Density (per Sq. Km.) 929
Sex ratio (females/per 1000 males) 906
Literacy rate (%) 36.11 (male 48.44, female 22.3)
The Gandak, Bagmati, Burhi Gandak and Baya are the important rivers besides a few streams. The Gandak and Bagmati have their origins in the mountains of Nepal. The Burhi Gandak is navigable during the greater part of the year. River Baya emanates from the Gandak a little west of the Muzaffarpur district. It enters the district near Karnaul in Sahebganj block and flows in the southeasterly direction almost parallel to the parent river and ultimately joins the Ganga.
The district has well developed means of communication. It has a network of railways and well-maintained roads. Country boats also ply in the larger rivers. All the block headquarters are linked with the district headquarters, Muzaffarpur by pucca roads. Train and buses are the main sources of communication. Almost all the roads are nationalized and the buses of Bihar Rajya Transport Corporation ply on these roads. Besides, private buses also ply on some routes.
Rice is the main crop of the district. It accounts for the major portion of the gross area sown. Maize is the next important crop for the district. Wheat is also grown in some parts of the district. Sugar cane, potato and barley are some of the non-cereal crops grown. The district is famous for mango and lichi, which are exported to other parts of the country & even abroad.
Main livestock of the district includes cows, buffaloes, bulls and bullocks, sheep, goats and pigs. The Animal Husbandly Department of the State Government has established veterinary hospitals, sub-centres, artificial insemination centres, poultry farms and village schemes all over the district, covering majority of villages. Poultry development has received considerable attention in the community development blocks and the rapid increase in the number of poultry is largely attributable to these measures.